Credit Risk
Credit risk is the risk of a contracting party’s defaulting in the performance of its contractual obligations and thus causing the other party to incur a financial loss. The TEB Group is exposed to credit risk basically through trading, trade finance, treasury and leasing activities but credit risk may also arise in other circumstances and due to other reasons.

One of the most prominent characteristics of our Bank is its conservative lending policy and solid asset structure that go hand in hand with a consistent growth strategy.

The authority to extend limits and allocate loans basically lies with the Board of Directors, which has delegated part of this authority to the Credit Committee and the General Manager in line with the principles and procedures set out by the BRSA. In turn, the General Manager has delegated part of his authority to Credit Groups and Business Lines jointly on the basis of rules approved by the Board of Directors.

Loans are extended within the limits defined for each debtor and group of debtors individually. Every customer that performs a transaction on credit must have a credit limit allocated by the relevant authorities and customers are systematically prevented from exceeding those credit risk limits.

Credit decisions are taken after loan proposals are first approved by a credit analyst together with the credit department and the related business line. Credit limits are allocated to borrowers identified as having the ability to generate cash flow, the ability to make repayments with the income generated on their business operations, reliable financial data, strong shareholder’s equity and an administration and shareholding structure made up of people having high morality and business experience.

Concentrations of credit risk arise when a number of customers are engaged in similar business activities, or activities in the same geographical region, or have similar economic features that would cause their ability to fulfill contractual obligations to be similarly affected by changes in economic, political or other conditions. In general, the TEB Group attempts to control credit risk by monitoring credit exposures, limiting transactions with specific counterparties, continually assessing the credibility and creditworthiness of counterparties, diversifying its lending activities to avoid undue concentrations of risks with individuals or groups of customers or industries, and by obtaining necessary collateral when appropriate. The credit limits to be allocated are determined in accordance with the related counterparty’s financial structure, certain qualitative criteria and the quality of any collateral to be provided.

Pursuant to the prudent policies the Bank adopts, the maximum credit limit that can be allocated to a customer is kept below legal limits, thus minimizing the risk of loan concentration. Limits set by the Board of Directors are regularly monitored and reported.

After a loan facility is offered, the Credit Monitoring Department monitors the customer’s repayment capability and the sufficiency and adequacy of the collateral. In this way, any problematic loan is identified at an early stage.

The Bank uses an in-house credit rating system, named TEBCORE (TEB Counterparty Risk & Rating Evaluation), which consists of several rating models for corporate and SME customers engaged in the production, service, construction and precious metal sectors. TEB uses the same master scale used by BNP Paribas.

The ratings are used for the purposes of credit allocation and delegation, assessing IFRS collective provisions, credit reporting, portfolio management and stress testing.

Group Risk Management reports to the Board of Directors and the Audit Committee on a regular basis presenting the Bank’s risk concentrations, a breakdown of the Bank’s loan portfolio by ratings, specific segments of the loan portfolio, large exposures, large non-performing accounts and impairment allowances as well as default and recovery rates.

The credit risks and limits related to financial institutions are determined by the Financial Institutions and Counterparty Risk Committee, which is a sub-committee of the Credit Committee. The limits and exposures set are monitored daily by the Group Risk Management.

Where a loan is granted subject to collateral being given, the Bank's policy is to require the collateral to be perfected before funds are advanced and to avoid currency and maturity mismatches. All collateral should be given in a legally valid manner and should be liquid in nature. In this context, real estate should be of a fast moving nature.

The Bank classifies as non-performing any loan which is 90 days or more overdue as to either principal or interest.

Both collective and specific provisions are made with methodologies that are compliant with both IFRS standards and BNP Paribas methodologies.

Interest Rate Risk
Interest rate risk involves possible losses that may be incurred due to fluctuations and volatilities in interest rates depending on maturity mismatches or the structures of interest rate-sensitive products in the balance sheet.

Protection against fluctuations in interest rates is the topmost priority for TEB. Interest rate risk is managed by the Assets and Liabilities Committee (ALCO). Decisions taken by ALCO are executed by the Assets and Liabilities Management Department under the Asset and Liability Management and Treasury Group.

Interest rate risk is determined by measuring the rate of sensitivity of assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet items to interest rates. The Board of Directors has set risk tolerance limits for the current changes in the value of net interest revenues and shareholders’ equity. TEB runs simulations of interest revenues according to estimated macroeconomic indicators. Duration, gap and sensitivity analyses are conducted and these calculations are conveyed to ALCO.

Possible negative effects of interest rate fluctuations on financial position and cash flow are minimized by means of prompt decisions. The management monitors the interest rate movements in the market on a daily basis and makes changes whenever necessary in deposit and loan rates.

When determining short, medium and long- term pricing strategies, TEB’s Assets and Liabilities Committee manages maturity mismatch and adopts the principle of working with positive balance sheet margins as its pricing policy.

Market Risk
Market risk involves possible losses a bank may incur as a result of the exposure of its balance sheet and off-balance sheet accounts to interest rate risk, equity position risk or exchange rate risk resulting from fluctuations in the financial markets, in interest rates, exchange rates or stock prices.

TEB’s Board of Directors ensures that the Group Risk Management and senior management take the necessary steps to properly measure, control and manage the Bank’s exposure to market risk.

The Board of Directors determines market risk limits and periodically revises these limits in accordance with market conditions and the strategies of TEB. All assessments regarding market risks are also evaluated by the Market Risk Committee that meets on a monthly basis. With regard to TEB’s daily transactions, stop-loss and transaction limits, PVO1 and VaR limits are applied on the basis of each product. The Board of Directors assigns limits for positions in derivatives and similar contracts. Transactions are carried out within these limits and the limits are monitored and reported daily.

The market risk of the Bank is calculated using a standard method and reported to legal authorities.

The market risk can influence the Value-at- Risk (VaR) figure, which is also calculated using various financial models. VaR figure is calculated using historical simulation method on the basis of a 250-business-day data and a one-day holding period in a 99% confidence interval. Daily VaR figures are the main drivers of TEB’s internal reports and efforts to monitor market risk. Back testing is periodically performed to validate the accuracy of calculations and the methods used.

The VaR figures calculated by internal models to predict losses in the event of a crisis are also verified by scenario analyses and stress tests, and are then reported to senior management and the Board of Directors.

Scenario analyses and stress tests involve the re-application of past crises to existing portfolios or the observation of likely losses due to interest and foreign exchange shocks.

Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk is defined as the risk resulting from lack of sufficient cash holdings or cash inflow to fully meet cash obligations in due time, because of imbalanced cash flow.

Liquidity risk also includes the risk of loss that may arise when it is not possible for a bank to adequately close positions at favorable prices and at sufficient amounts or as rapidly as required, or when a bank is unable to exit the positions held, due to an inability to enter the market as needed, to shallow market structure in certain products or to obstacles arising in the markets.

TEB’s policies focus on maintaining the quality of its asset structure, so that liquid assets can meet all obligations. Striving to be one of the most liquid banks in the industry is of utmost importance to TEB. The Board of Directors regularly monitors and determines liquidity ratios and the relevant standards for maintaining high liquidity at all times.

TEB has in place an effective management reporting system for the timely reporting of the liquidity position to the Board of Directors, senior management and all related units. Cash flow analyses are carried out for different maturity structures and currency units. Maturity mismatches are monitored and concentrations in funding sources are closely monitored. All related analyses are evaluated in detail by the Liquidity Risk Committee that meets once a month.

As a matter of general policy, consistency in maturities and interest rates of assets and liabilities is maintained at all times in line with Assets and Liabilities Management strategies, and balance sheet positions of TRY and returns on foreign currency mix are continuously managed in the positive.

With regard to the sources of funding and liquidity, it is observed that while the greater part of the liquidity requirement of TEB is met by deposits, bonds issue, syndicated loans and pre-financing products are also used at times to obtain funds in addition to deposits.

TEB strictly adheres to the policy of maintaining high-quality liquid assets in sufficient amounts. This assures a regular cash flow from our liabilities.

Exchange Rate Risk
Exchange rate risk is defined as a possible loss that the Bank may incur due to mismatches in its FX assets and liabilities in the event of changes in exchange rates.

In calculating capital adequacy that underlies exchange rate risk, VaR is calculated and reported using the standard method. While doing this, TEB takes into account all of its foreign-currency assets, liabilities and forward foreign-currency contracts.

Within the limits approved by the Board of Directors, the Asset and Liability Management and Treasury Group and the Financial Markets Group are responsible for the management of price, liquidity and fulfillment risks arising from fluctuations in local or foreign currency prices in domestic and international markets.

Money market risks and risk-bearing transactions are monitored on a daily basis, reported weekly and monthly to related committees. Similar to the market risk, matters about exchange rate risk are discussed separately by the Market Risk Committee that meets once a month.

Position limits and details determined by the Board of Directors are monitored and reported on a daily basis.